355_4 PLANT BREEDING OF ORNAMENTAL CROPS: EVOLUTION TO A BRIGHT FUTURE?! Mutagens can be applied to single cell and the effect can be detected easily, isolated and utilised fully for new variety production through tissue culture. The application of, Depicker, A., De Loose, M. and Van Bockstaele, E. (1994). RESISTANCE IN WHEAT: DEVELOPMENT OF A MYCOTOXIN-BASED SELECTION METHOD OF SEEDLINGS, 355_26 MINITUBERS FOR SEED POTATO PRODUCTION, 355_27 PROMISING ROUTES OF OILSEED BREEDING. O It helps in vegetative propagation. A. Depicker, M. De Loose, E. Van Bockstaele, In this paper, we will concentrate on the recent developments and spin-off applications of plant tissue culture and molecular biology in plant breeding. Share Your Word File Plant breeding exploits biodiversity. Among several crop plants, rice has been the most wanted target plant. Somatic hybrid production by proto­plast culture-fusion technique, use of different molecular biological techniques and alien gene incorporation into the genetic background of cultivated species thus become obvi­ous. (ii) It leads to better growth of new plants . Somaclonal variation can be generated through tissue culture technique and the se­lected clone can be produced in mass scale. What would be the consequences if there is no meiosis in organisms that reproduce sexually? (iv) They are distributed frequently throughout the genome. One of the approaches is the use of ‘Biotechnology’ through different cell and tissue culture techniques and genetic engineering methods. TOS4. An unlimited number of haploid plants can be produced within short time; success has been achieved in barley, rice, wheat, potato, tomato, etc. As far as we can evaluate, these are triple. Cybrids or cytoplasmic hybrids are obtained through following methods: (i) Fusion of normal protoplast with enucleated protoplast from other parent. Selective breeding is one form of biotechnology important in agriculture and medicine, because when scientists manipulate the genetic makeup of an organism, they are using biotechnology. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Depicker, Anna, Marc De Loose, and Erik Van Bockstaele. Moreover the vegetative propagating plants, such as banana which multiply by rhizome and one plant can yield about 10 plants per year, through micro-propagation as many as 2,00,000 plant- lets can be obtained. Modern biotechnology should be perceived as a new group of tools or means to be used as adjuncts or complements to conventional technologies in solving problems and meeting the needs of human beings. Cross contamination and seed harvestation may lead to contamination of breeding lines. Prediction of Hybrid Performance (Heterosis): Genetic distance between possible parents can be estimated by employing molecular markers. PLANT BREEDING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Societal Context and the Future of Agriculture This accessible survey of modern plant breeding traces its history from the earliest experiments at the dawn of the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century to the present day and the existence of high-tech agribusiness. This can be done by the selection of mutations and by gene transfer experiments. Acta Hortic. All these different techniques have been applied in different plant materials using different kinds of genes for many desirable traits of agronomic values e.g., the genes for stress tolerance i.e., drought, salt and temperature stress (physical or abiotic stress); genes for disease resistance such as resistance against any pathogen by producing toxin, PR protein, plantibodies, or RNA mediated resistance gene; herbicide resistance, insect resis­tance; genes for development of male sterile line and also the restorer line; genes for better nutritional quality as in many cereal crops (rice, wheat, maize), oil seed crops (Brassica), pulses and vegetables (potato, tomato); etc. Bulked segregate analysis (BSA) helps to detect the polymorphism between two species. The DNA introduced into majority of the cells is lost with cell division. Denis Murphy tells the story (b) Direct or physical transfer method is commonly used in case of cereals as these are naturally reluctant to Agrobacterium infection. To overcome the sexual barrier (pre-fertilisation and post-fertilisation), there is the need of modern non-conventional … Maintenance and multiplication of self-incompatible inbred line (male sterile line) is possible by tissue culture methods very easily. Copyright © 2020 International Society for Horticultural Science. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Role of Bio-technology in plant breeding . RFLP markers from closely related species are good markers for constructing gene map. Some important discoveries related to biotechnology has been shown in Fig 1. goals of plant breeding are focused and purposeful. Although plant breeding had a significant role in the development of different human civilizations, plant breeding is generally not recognized as a major activity by the general public. 355, 195-208, International Society for Horticultural Science, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1994.355.21, Plant Breeding for Mankind - Symposium Agribex 94, Division Landscape and Urban Horticulture, 355_1 RELATION OF PLANT BREEDING TO CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES, 355_2 PLANT BREEDING IN IMPROVING CROP YIELD AND QUALITY IN RECENT DECADES, 355_3 RESULTS OF PLANT BREEDING DURING THE LAST DECADE IN RELATION TO RESISTANCE AGAINST PATHOGENS. Protoplast culture technique itself has an immense potential for crop improvement programme, as the alien gene introduction or incorporation is more easier in this way and transgenic or genetically modified crops can be regenerated. 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