"See Burkert, "Jason" 6 and n. 1. La psychanalyse du feu. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. And Philostratos Imrrg. By winning this Olympic victory in 468 (confirmed by P. Oxy. And if we turn back to Pindar, we note that points of similarity between 01. in contrast to Boeckh, Schneidewin. Fab. 2.1249, citing Duris E'. 47Whether or not Pindar's image of the golden rain is. Song und Action: The Victory Odes cf Pindar: Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982. C'on~n~c~t~taric~,~. '('On the Panathenaia as Athena's birthday see schol. FGrHist 324 F 2); Eratosth. 42Cf.Pyth. Crotty, Kevin. This split of the two roles, namely the virgin and the motherlwife, between Athena and Rhodes respectively, which is effected in the Rho- dian myth, carries further implications. the list of Diagoras' athletic victories see Young, 7'hrc.e Ode.5 91. And rhumos, besides the presence of its cognate rhrcsian in the previous line (42), is derived, already in Plat. "45 Whatever the answer may be, Pindar's passage combines gold and water in the image of the golden rain.46 The reward to the first runners at Rhodes came, of course, in far larger quantities than the prize of the Pan- athenaic torch race (49-50): The reward of the Rhodians reverses in fact the rule of the Panathe~aic race. (Drachmann I 218). Str~rcture56-58. The Olympian Odes of Pindar, like all of his epinician hymns, start with a preamble, usually containing an invocation to a deity or personified idea. Last but not least comes the paradox of Athena's virginity, which the goddess in Athens has to preserve and yet at the same time receive the semen of the fire god and "mediate" in the conception and birth of Erikhthonios. Pindar's Hon~er82-145. De Incrc~d. NeuchStel: La Baconniere, 1962. In Approaches to Greek Myth, edited by Lowell Edmunds. as emphasized by the two datives: tekhnaisin and especially hhalkelut6i pelrhei, a collocation which im- plies the use of fire. If, in order to comply with Helios' command, the Rhodians had to be the first to honor the goddess, against whom were they competing? That Hephaistos' semen fell on the earth via Athena's thigh may not be accidental in light of Dionysus' birth from Zeus' thigh (E. Ba. FIRELESS SACRIFICES: PINDAR'S OLYMPIAN 7AND THE PANATHENAIC FESTIVAL, Pindar's Seventh Olympian Ode celebrates the Olympic boxing victory in 464 won by Diagoras of the Rhodian family of the Eratidai.' It has been noted that "the oxymoron of virginal mater- nity" in Athenian ideology "promises fertility without the dangerous corollary of se~uality."~~. Amcrlcan Journal ofPhilology 114 (1993) 1-26 0 1993 by The John? He inte- grates the two rites into one larger picture by alluding to a primordial torch race in which the Rhodians and the Athenians compete for Athe- na's favor as if in accordance with the regulations of the Panathenaic. S.V. Nem. Theog. It is noteworthy that at 70 Helios is predicated as father, but of course not of Rhodes. The problem. ''On orthu hodos see Becker. "See Brelich, Paides 326-37, who suggests, however, that the torch race was only part of the quadrennial celebration, a "festa di rinnovamento" on a grander scale. S.V.Erekhtheus; Hyg. Theog. Leiden: Brill, 1968. ; Apollod. Phdr: 231e). The Rhodians were, after all, warned well in advance by Helios to heed their future khreos and honor the birth of Athena with a solemn sacrifice (39-41). It is such a mishap of the Rhodians. . In the myth of the Panathenaic festival, as we saw, Hephaistos' semen falls on the ground, and the earth gives birth to Erikhthonios. Ducrey, 295-303. "Pindar et I'Orient: le mythe de la VIle Olympique." On the importance of autochthony as a concept shaping civic identity see Loraux, Les enfanfs 35-75 and, with emphasis on the idea of temporal priority, Rosivach, "Autochthony" 302-5. Such a comparison of local ritual variants is especially apt in the case of 01. 570-84), and autochthonous Erikhthonios (Paus. In E. Ion 452-57. for instance, it is Prometheus who helps Zeus give birth: cf. "7 The story illustrates Pindar's generous use of mythical catalogs, especially to introduce poems (cf. 13; Hygin. (Apollod. Share - Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian Odes by Pindar: Used. Jurenka, "Diagoras Lied" 187-90; Farnell, Pindur 139; Young, Three Odes 84-85. tance for a moment and focus on the temporal sequence instead, we may flesh out even more the mythological and ritual subtext of Pindar's narrative. 126: Plut. The mythic section of the ode falls into three parts, which are narrated in reverse chronological order. Robertson, Noel. 0dr.r 85 n. 2. 585, 618; E. Hel. Paris: Gallimard, 1938. etc. Pindar Olympian 7. takes in the present, "Prometheus' name in 01. 125-92. An example is afforded by the Megarian vs. Messenian myths of Ino's vs. Leukothea's emergence; see briefly Nagy, "Theognis and Megara" 79-80. Pa. 8.65-67; Hes. 1.24.3." 01. 13Brelich, Paides 333-34, and Robertson, "Origins" 258-61. Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual. offers a richer explanation, without, however, questioning the commonly assumed meaning of l~irhu.In his view. Verdenius, W. J. Hopktns Untverrtty Prerr. Bundy, E. L. Studia Pindarica, 1-11. The delay of the negative produces suspense and mirrors the tension of the race. On the possible Indo-European origins of the connection between sacrificial fire and the sun, see Nagy, Greek Mythology 146-50. tent are we allowed to speak of Pindaric invention and not of Rhodian tradition? "60 It is as if the streets (keleuthoi) themselves gave birth to erga similar to living beings. .phlogos is thus not merely a poetic image but assumes a multiple reference, fluctuating as it does between fire and sexuality, between the literal and the meta- phorical. These works will be referred to in the following paper by the author's name only. Lykophr. 1983. It has commonly been recognized as differing from Pindar's other metres, but many opinions have been held of its character. X4See Defradas, "Septieme Olympique" 34-50. More circumspect are Lawall, "Cup" 37-38 ("the Rhodians for- got the commands of Helios and offered a fireless sacrifice to the goddess"), and Young, Three Odes 85 ("the failure of the Heliadae to use fire in their sacrifice"). Although in other versions she does not lack one (schol. While Athena's birth from a father has been characterized as "le produit d' une operation mCtallurgique,"69 Rhodes' birth without a father is depicted in terms that recall the growth of plants. '^ A second correspondence is the presence of the fire god, Hephaistos andlor Prometheus, who we have remarked were strongly linked with Athena in Athens both spatially (in the Academy) and ritually (at the torch race with its aetiology). LSJ s.v. s.v. 8.2. moreover, Olympia is termed despoin' alatheias, presumably because it confers unmistakable recognition upon the victor (cf. Magn. Brelich, Angelo. Commentaries on Pindac Mnemosyne Supplement 97. The Greek lyric poet Pindar is renowned for poems celebrating athletic victories in the great games of Olympia, Delphi, Corinth and Nemea. The Authoritative Speech of Prose, Poetry, and Song: Pindar and Herodotus I 9. A Commentary on Pindar "Olympian" 9 . schen Spruche. The Athenians follow in the second place, but they can use their fire to kindle the altar for the sacrifice that will entice Athena to become their patron goddess. The transition from the victor's praise to exaltation of the polis is, of course, in keeping with the main thrust of the epinician genre.77 Further, Rhodes' involvement in the quasi-athletic contest of the torch race seems to fit very well with the epinician atmosphere. Theog. Paus. 1990. Further, the overview by Robertson, "Origins" 241-53, of other festi- vals of Athena similar to the Panathenaia reveals that the Rhodian rite was unique. The very limited number of such rites in the Greek world fully justifies Walter Burkert's remark that "sacrifices without fire are rare, conscious exception^. In other words. More specifically, representations of Erikhtho- nios' birth on vases abound in the second quarter of the fifth century; see Metzger, "Athena" 295-303, esp. the underlying allusion to the model of the, *OThe argument of Rosivach. Gaertringen. ), he is also seen as the son of Hephaistos and Athena (Apollod. . Second comes the birth of Athena, the fireless sacrifice offered to her by the Rhodians who failed to heed Helios' instructions, and their subsequent reward (34-53). How does their juxtaposition in the Pindaric account fit with the contrast that we have explored between the myth and rites of the Panathenaia, on the one hand, and the Rhodian myth and rites, on the other? Loraux, Les enfants 30. Delcourt, H@haistos 31-33. sopaus. with the rule at the Panathenaic torch race, as Pausanias preserves it (1.30.2): TO bt hyOvtapu 6p0U TW beopy $uh&Sut -c+v b@bu &-c~xutopivqv iariv. as in Delphi by the Medes, it could not be reset from another fire, but a fresh, new flame, pure and unpolluted, had to be kindled from the sun. Fab. At the same time. von. 10.63: ta d' es eniauton atekmartonpronoPsai (notice the use ofpro-as in 01.7.44). Sol. Further, to return to the initial aim of this paper, to what. Robertson, "Origins" 254-58, keeps the two figures completely distinct. 69Vernant and Detienne, Les ruses 177; cf. Arefhusa 11 (1978) 149-84. 11. Lawall, Gilbert. This golden shower that can impregnate and gen- erate is familiar from two myths also attested in Pindar: those of Danae (Pyth. X'On Panhellenism and its impact on epic and lyric see Nagy. Plat. "Rhodos." Unz, R. K. "The Chronology of the Pentekontaetia." . ZIIt is worth noting that before the institution of a torch race for Pan (Hdt. “Olympian Ode 1″ is one of the best known of the many victory poems of the ancient Greek lyric poet Pindar.It celebrates the victory of Hieron, the tyrant of Syracuse, in the prestigious single horse race at the Olympic Games of 476 BCE. It has only to be reactivated by the golden shower of Zeus, and the excellent skill offered by Athena. 1.3.5; cf. Rubin, "Olympians 7: The Toast and the Future Prayer," Hermes 108 (1980) 248-52; "Pindar's Creation of Epinician Symbols: Olympians 7 and 6," CW 74 (1980) 67-87, esp. Phdc 213e) on the east side of the Parthenon, in front of the depiction of her birth on the east pediment (Paus. though important in its own terms, is not crucial for our investigation. On the multiple origin of Erikhthonios and on Athena's various functions see Loraux, Les enfants 22.57-65, esp. "lampados"; Bekker, Anecd. London: Thames &, Hudson, 1978. 1.195: schol. 'For the text of Pindar I use Snell and Maehler, for the scholia Drachmann. 2.13. In 01.7 they may not be as conspicuous as in Athens. 12.17-18) and of Alkmene (Isrhm.7.5). 8.39: cf. On the strong semantic link between alethis1 alitheia and lanthand, which colors the former as "not allowing itself to be unnoticed," see Krischer, "Etumos" 161-64. Rhod. yet its placement there may have followed some precedent: cf. 7 is also a good case in point. Athena offered them the art of creating objects similar to living beings (50-53). Following, reference is made to the name and origin of the victor, then to the sport and the location where the contest took place.